What causes cervical polyps

Disease science

What Causes Cervical Polyps

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Cervical polyps are growths that form on the cervix, the lower, narrow end of the uterus that opens into the vagina. They are usually noncancerous (benign) and can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters.

Causes of Cervical Polyps

The exact cause of cervical polyps is unknown, but they are thought to be caused by a combination of factors, including:

Inflammation: Chronic inflammation of the cervix, such as that caused by infections or irritation, can lead to the formation of polyps.

Hormonal changes: Estrogen, a female hormone, can stimulate the growth of polyps. This is why polyps are more common in women who are taking estrogen therapy or who are pregnant.

Cervical injury: Injury to the cervix, such as that caused by childbirth or a medical procedure, can also lead to the formation of polyps.

Types of Cervical Polyps

There are two main types of cervical polyps:

Endocervical polyps: These polyps form on the inside of the cervix, in the endocervical c***. They are the most common type of cervical polyp.

Ectocervical polyps: These polyps form on the outside of the cervix, in the ectocervix. They are less common than endocervical polyps.

Symptoms of Cervical Polyps

Most cervical polyps do not cause any symptoms. However, some women may experience:

Abnormal vaginal bleeding: This can include bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause.

Vaginal discharge: This can be clear, white, or tinged with blood.

Pelvic pain: This can be a dull ache or a sharp pain.

Feeling a lump in the vagina: This is most common with larger polyps.

Diagnosis of Cervical Polyps

Cervical polyps are usually diagnosed during a pelvic exam. Your doctor will look for any growths on the cervix and may take a sample of tissue for biopsy to rule out cancer.

Treatment of Cervical Polyps

Most cervical polyps do not require treatment. However, your doctor may recommend treatment if you are experiencing symptoms or if the polyp is large or growing rapidly.

Treatment options for cervical polyps include:

Polypectomy: This is the most common treatment for cervical polyps. It involves removing the polyp using a small instrument called a biopsy forceps.

Hysteroscopy: This is a procedure in which a thin, lighted tube is inserted into the uterus to visualize the cervix and remove the polyp.

Laser ablation: This is a procedure in which a laser is used to destroy the polyp.

Cryosurgery: This is a procedure in which the polyp is frozen and destroyed.

Outlook for Cervical Polyps

The outlook for cervical polyps is generally good. Most polyps are benign and can be easily treated. However, it is important to see your doctor if you experience any symptoms of cervical polyps, as they can sometimes be a sign of a more serious condition.

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